Previous slide
Next slide

Welcome to ITM

The Institute of Traditional Medicine, previously known as Traditional Medicine Research Unit was established under the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, Act of Parliament no. 9 of 1991, Section 10 (1) (c). The Act provided for an Institute Board that reports to the Academic Board of the College. The Institute is charged with the responsibility to research into traditional healing systems, in Tanzania, to identify useful practices which can be adopted and also to identify useful materia medica which can be modernized and developed into drugs for use to improve human health.

THE VISION         

To become the leading institution in Africa in training, consultancy and research in developing quality herbal medicines for the healthy well being of the people, and contribute to poverty reduction through community based cultivation of specific medicinal plants


To research on traditional medicines and promote the development of standardized herbal and plant derived pharmaceuticals and useful non-material aspects of traditional medicine through teaching and consultancy for the improvement of the health of the Tanzanian people

About ITM

Since 1968 when the Dar es Salaam College of the University of East Africa established its Faculty of Medicine, it was interested in the development of traditional medicine. In 1973 the University Planning Committee accepted the establishment of Traditional Medicine Research Unit which became operational in 1974. The unit had three sections namely Botany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology which have now been transformed to departments ofthe Institute of Traditional Medicine


The Institute of Traditional Medicine was established Through parliamentact no. 9 of 1991, Section 10 (1) (c), under the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences which in 2007 became Muhimbili University of Health and Alled Sciences, established Article 1 of the Charter of Incorporation; in line with the Universities act no 7 of 2005.The Institute has three Departments;known asDepartment of Medical Botany, Plant Breeding and Agronomy;Department of Natural Products Development and Formulation; and the Department of Biological and Preclinical Studies.  It is expected that three more departments; namely Department of Medical Anthropology; Department of Clinical Evaluation and Department of pharmaceutical formulations and production will be established.


The Institute of Traditional Medicine is charged with the responsibility to research into traditional healing systems, in Tanzania, to identify useful materiamedica which can be modernized and developed into drugs and traditional healing practices which can be adopted for use to improve human health.

The Institute has the following opportunities in accomplishing its responsibilities:

  1. The country with large wealth of medicinal plants, a few of which have been exploited. These represent potential source of curative products and drug
  2. Over 75,000 traditional healers in Tanzanian Mainland. These are the custodians of the knowledge about plants with medicinal value. They will assist the Institute in exploiting the wealth of medicinal plants found in different parts of the country.
  3.  Countrywith unique in the world. Some plants are only found in Tanzania. Due to this reason it is possible to attract both national and international collaborators in research on the medicinal value of these plants.
  4. Presence of medicinal plant farms, which can be used for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. The same plants can be used to prepare galenicals for use. Establishment of a herbal pharmacy for dispensing these preparations will generate funds for the institute
Our Programmes

Training Programmes


In 2009/2010 the Institute engaged in yet another milestone through conducting a Postgraduate programmes aimed at producing graduates who will further strengthen development of Traditional medicine for the health of Tanzanians.

Currently, the institute offers three types of programmes; Master of Science in Traditional Medicines Development (Msc. Trad Meds Dev), PhD programme and CEPD short courses.


i.Master of Science in Traditional Medicines Development (Msc. Trad Meds Dev)

This is a four-semester programme, constituting 24 weeks each. Lectures, seminars and practical classes is covered in semesters one to two, whereas dissertation work is done in semesters three and four. All candidates shall have to study and pass examinations in the following courses offered by various departments within the University.

ii.Doctor of Philosophy Degree (PhD)

The PhD by research and publication is offered for 3 to 4 years at the institute in the areas of traditional medicine development

Admission of a candidate for the Doctor of Philosophy degree of the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences shall study for 3-4 years period .The candidate must hold the following qualifications:

Masters degree of this University or its predecessor or an equivalent Masters degree from a recognized University.Certificates obtained from unlisted Universities and institutions of higher learning shall be subject to approval by the Tanzania Commission for Universities.

Our Departments
Natural Products Development And Formulations

Natural Products Development And Formulations

  1. Department

The department of Natural Products Development and Formulations is one of the three departments of the Institute of Traditional Medicine. It deals with research, teaching and consultancy in natural products from traditionally used material medica as well as formulation of research proven products to be used for improvement of health. The department has a unit called production unit which houses a GMP laboratory (Good Manufacturing Practice laboratory) used for production of herbal medicine. It also has a natural products research laboratory used for research work. The department has ten (10) staff including five (5) academic and five technical staff.

The department is involved in teaching postgraduate students, preparation of crude extracts and other fractions for bioassays, bioassay guided separation of active substances of plants, mineral or animal origin used in traditional medicine. characterization and identification of biologically active substances, structure elucidation of biologically active isolated compounds           formulation, standardization and laboratory scale production of herbal medicine, quality analysis of active ingredients of medicinal preparations from cultivated exotic plants and other formulations based on laboratory findings and information collected from traditional healers and dissemination of research findings to scientists, traditional healers and the general public, through publications, seminars and workshops.

  1. Research

The department conducts research in the thematic areas prioritized by the University. The following are some of the ongoing research projects in the department, clustered to respective thematic areas


  1. Search for Antifungal Compounds from Tanzanian Medicinal Plants for managing Fungal infections
  2. Formulation and standardization of herbal medicine from Garcinia and Combretum plant species growing in Tanzania for managing HIV/AIDS and related diseases
  3. Phytochemical and Antifungal Investigation of Tanzanian Combretum Species for Potential Formulations against Fungal Infections
  4. Laboratory and semi-field mosquito larvicidal activity of some Tanzanian medicinal plants’ formulations
  5. Investigation of chemical composition and mosquito repellent property of essential oils from some Tanzanian plants


  1. Laboratory and semi-field mosquito larvicidal activity of some Tanzanian medicinal plants formulations
  2. Investigation of chemical composition and mosquito repellent property of essential oils from some Tanzanian plants

Health System Research

  1. Empowering Tanzanian Communities to achieve economic sustainability and resilience. A trainer of trainer approach for value addition of Avocado and Rosella products


  1. Training Programmes

The department of Natural Products Development and Formulation is involved in training of MSc and PhD programmes in Traditional Medicine Development. The department jointly with other departments’ runs one master program (MSc. Traditional Medicine Development) teaching the course named Phytochemical Processes in Herbal Drugs Development (TM 603). The department is also involved in short course training programmes for Health Practitioners.


  1. Consultancy

The department offers consultancies in the following areas

  1. Phytochemical screening of active ingredients from medicinal plants
  2. Formulation and standardization of herbal medicine
  3. Antioxidant assays

Biological And Pre-Clinical Studies

 The Department of Biological and Pre-Clinical Studies is one of the three departments in the Institute of Traditional Medicine (ITM) involved in research, training and consultancy services. The Department has eight (8) academic members of staff including Associate Research Professors (2), Senior Research Fellows (1), Research Fellow (1), Assistant Lecturer (3) and Tutorial Assistant (1). In addition, the Department has two technical staff including Laboratory Scientist and Laboratory Assistant.


Major Functions

(i) Screening of medicinal plants collected from traditional healers to establish the presence of pharmacological activity.


(ii) To carry out toxicological studies on medicinal plant extracts to generate knowledge which will form the basis for:

  • Assessment of the safety of different traditional medicines used in the country.
  • Recommendation to the public on the safety of traditional medicines prepared by Traditional health Practitioners.
  • Regulatory approval of newly developed herbal formulations or drugs


(iii) To search for reliable, simple and reproducible bioassays for preliminary screening of medicinal plant extracts.


(iv) To identify the mechanism of action of traditional medicines used by Traditional health Practitioners and suggest possible lines of development of products from isolated active compounds.


(v) To collaborate with the Department of Natural Products and Formulation To carry out standardization of indigenous and exotic medicinal plant products.


(vi) To collaborate with the Department of Natural Products and Formulation in the Bio-assay guided fractionation and isolation of active compounds from plant extracts.


In future, the Institute of Traditional Medicine intends to establish a related Department that will be responsible for Clinical Evaluation of traditional medicines. The new Department will have the following functions:

(i) To plan and conduct clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of traditional medicines within ethical and scientific requirements.


(ii) To document the relevant practices of Traditional health Practitioners as a means to identify effective therapies which can be taken up for drug development.


(iii) To monitor short term and long term toxicities due to traditional medicines.


(iv) To generate clinical data to support regulatory approval of traditional medicines.



  1. Research

HIV/AIDS Projects:

Researchers and students from this Department collaborated with other researchers within ITM and from outside Tanzania in HIV research works. There were studies on various plants including of the genus Combretum, Terminalia, Garcinia and Carissa. These species have been earmarked as potential sources of bioactive anti-HIV-1 compounds. Screening of the crude extracts, fractions and isolated compounds for HIV-1 PR and RT inhibition and HIV-1 neutralization activities were reported.


In-vivo and in-vitro antimalarial testing:

Both, in-vivo and in vitro testing for antimalaria activity has been established. In vivo testing using Plasmodium berghei malaria model in mice has been strengthened by involving undergraduate and postgraduate (MSc & PhD) students. Two academicians in the department were trained on malaria parasite culture and in vitro testing for anti-plasmodial activity. In addition, Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites and basic equipment for in-vitro testing have been procured and a laboratory dedicated for cell culture work has been established.


Pest and vector control for health and crop protection.

Studies geared into isolation of active compounds for pest and vector control for health and crop protection have been initiated. Facilities to test for mosquitocidal activities have been established whereby there are three on-going projects. One of the projects is seeking to isolate compounds and formulate mosquito larvicidal agents. The other two projects are searching for botanicals for crop protection in collaboration with Sokoine University of Agriculture.


Antimicrobial testing:

This program mainly involves in vitro evaluation of plant extracts, fractions and isolated compounds against bacteria and fungi using disc diffusion and microdilution assays. Many projects were carried out which led to the isolation of several active compounds against bacteria and fungi.


Cytotoxicity testing:

The brine shrimp lethality assay is a well-established in the Department as a preliminary test for toxicity, as a screening tool for possible anticancer activity and other non-specific biological activities. Recently, the Department has established Cell and Tissue Culture Laboratory with important equipment to evaluate cytotoxic and anticancer activity on mammalian cells.


Anti convulsant testing:

Testing for anticonvulsant activity using the chemical-induced convulsions model is well established in the Department. The convulsions in animals (mice) are induced using picrotoxin, isoniazid and pentylenetetrazol convulsant agents. This is one of the areas which generated publications and further studies are ongoing.


Anti-TB Natural Products research:

Search for anti-TB compounds from Tanzanian medicinal plants is an on-going process. Two anti-TB assays have been established: Whole cell inhibition assay (using Mtb marker organisms), and the enzyme assay which inhibits Mycothione reductase redox cycle. Furthermore, various analytical instruments for the assays have been procured.


Anti-ulcers research

Currently several models of anti-ulcer studies have been in use. The Ethanol/Hydrochloric acid, aspirin and indomethacin models have been used to induce gastric ulcers in rats. Using these models, several plant species were tested for their protective effect and some were found to be gastro-protective. The Department is intending to develop other peptic ulcer models to facilitate understanding the mechanisms of antiulcer activity of plant extracts. Helicobacter pylori is implicated in peptic ulcer disease and therefore testing herbal extracts against this bacterium can provide an additional information regarding the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of peptic ulcers. The Department is now in the process of getting the standard strains of this bacterium so as to be used as a screening tool.


Anti-diabetes research

Oral glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetes are two diabetes models established in the department for screening of medicinal plants with hypoglycaemic potential. A number of publications have been obtained through the research works in this area.

  1. Training programme

The department participates in training of postgraduate students; by teaching three modules namely TM 604-1 Basic Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Techniques, TM 604-2 General Principles of the Quantitative and Qualitative aspects of Drug Action, and TM 604-3 Pre-Clinical Safety Testing and Good Laboratory Practice to MSc Traditional Medicine Development Programme and PhD students. The members of staff in the department are also involved in teaching courses offered in other Departments at MUHAS and short courses on Traditional Medicine Development to Traditional Health Practitioners every year. The senior academicians are also involved in supervision of MSc Dissertations and PhD Theses.


  1. Consultancy

Some of the consultancies which have been done include evaluation of medicinal plants for anti-ulcer activity and evaluation of a dental formula. Other areas of consultancy include training of Traditional Health Practitioners and conducting different bioassays that are available in the department.

Medical Botany, Plant Breeding And Agronomy

The department of Medical Botany, Plant Breeding and Agronomy is one of the three departments of the Institute of Traditional Medicine. It was established in 2006. It is charged with handling major activities including taxonomic identification and documentation of plants which are used by Traditional Healers and Traditional Birth Attendants, conduction of economic mapping of the spontaneous flora of Tanzania to identify the qualitative and quantitative genetic resources in medicinal and aromatic plants, promotion on conservation of medicinal and aromatic plant biodiversity in the country based on realistic in-situ and ex-situ sustainable programmes, agrobiological studies on medicinal and aromatic plants growing in the spontaneous flora in order to establish the ecophysiological and agrotechnological requirements needed for commercial exploitation, enhancement of the cultivation of important medicinal and aromatic plants to facilitate a sustainable economic harvesting of the natural resources without jeopardising the genetic germplasm, genetic, pathological, entomological and biochemical studies on      prospective medicinal and aromatic plants in order to realise a sustainable utilization of medicinal/aromatic plants. Other activities include development and maintainnance of a rich herbarium of medicinal and aromatic plants for research, teaching and retrieval purposes, and to disseminate ethnobotanical and agronomical research information to scientists, students, traditional healers and general public through publications, seminars, pamphlets and workshops.


The research carried out at the department has helped to generate rich data on different disciplines. For example, currently over 5000 records and about 1500 species of medicinal plants are recorded. The study on distribution of some potential medicinal plants such as Prunus africana was done whereas their distribution was established. There is ex-situ conservation program of some exotic medicinal plants in the institute farms in Tanga, Coast and Arusha regions. The agronomic studies of some native plants of Tanzania such as Hypoxis, Orchids and Aloes is being done as such, some exotic species such as Artemisia, Hybiscus, Cynara, Pimpinella, Saponaria and Glycirrhiza  are grown at the institute medicinal farms in Lushoto, Arusha and Kongowe. About 4500 records of the herbarium are already digitalized and shared with the TanBIF. Some framers in Kongowe ward ware trained on good agricultural practices. The Molecular lab laboratory has been established for plant DNA barcoding and there is living collection of Aloe and Hypoxis species at the background of ITM building


Future plans of the department includes establishment of medicinal plants Botanical garden, establishment of department of medical anthropology and recruitment of more staff with specialties in the areas of plant systematic, agronomy, medical anthropology, plant breeding, agriculture and botany.


  1. Research currently carried out by the department
  1. Growth appraisal and performance of Hypoxis species in Lushoto Medicinal farm
  2. Propagation tests of Glycirrhiza glabra and Pimpinella anisum in Lushoto and Meru/USA in Arusha
  • Trial cultivation of wild collected Artemisia affra in Lushoto medicinal farm
  1. Comparison of the yield per stem for Hypoxis spp in Lushoto farm
  1. Training programme
  1. The department is involved in training Post Graduate students where the courses offered are:

TM 601: Traditional and Alternative Health Care Systems

TM 602: Medical Botany, Biosystematics, and Plant Breeding.


  1. Community outreach
  1. There is collaborative farming where local communities in Lushoto and Arusha Olmotonyi are involved in contractual cultivation of some medicinal plants such as Hibiscus subdariffa, Plantago lanceolata, Cynara Scolymus, Artemisia affra, Artemisia annua, Pimpinella anisum, Glycirhiza glabra etc for production of herbal medicines at the institute
Management Team

Director- Institute of Traditional Medicine

Joseph Nicolao Otieno (BSc, MSc, PhD),

Prof. Otieno is currently part of research team developing a catalogue of native Flora and Fauna of Dar es salaam and is involved in generating baseline information for establishing Non Detriment Findings of Osyris lanceolata (Sandalwood) of East Africa. Is also part of ongoing initiative to bring-to-life African Indigenous Knowledge Systems for social development in collaboration with other institutional hubs in Africa Dr Otieno is intending to work on a number of research areas including nutritive/medicinal values and sustainable conservation of the Tanzanian wild vegetables, taxonomy and medicinal uses of wild Aloes of Tanzania, sustainable conservation of Prunus africana, Hypoxis species and other tuberous herbs of Tanzania

Head-Medical Botany, Plant Breeding And Agronomy.

Dr Pax J. Masimba, Senior Research Fellow,

I completed my bachelor degree in Veterinary Medicine, BVM, in 1999 at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Master of Veterinary Medicine (Microbiology) in 2003 at SUA, and PhD (Microbiology) in 2011 at Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Switzerland.

Research Interest

Working as a Research Fellow in the Department of Biological and Pre-Clinical Studies, the main interest has been on drug screening/discovery from natural products

Head-Natural Product Development and Formulation.

Dr. Francis Machumi (BSc, MSc, PhD)Senior research Fellow,

I have been teaching and researching on natural products from traditionally used medicinal plants. I joined Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences in 2013 as a Research Fellow. I am a member to three professional and research networks; Tanzania Chemical Society (TCS), Natural Products Research Network for Eastern and Central Africa (NAPRECA) and the Royal Chemical Society (RSC).

Research Interest

My research interests are in isolation and identification natural products from medicinal plants, antimicrobial and antiparasitic assays as well as derivatization and synthesis of natural products.

Head-Biological And Pre-Clinical Studies

Ramadhani S.O. Nondo (BPharm, MSc, PhD),

Ramadhani Selemani Omari Nondo obtained Bachelor of Pharmacy degree (BPharm) at the University of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) in 2003, Certificate of French as a Foreign Language at the University of Franche-Comté (Besançon, France) in 2006, and MSc Pharmacology at the University of Strasbourg 1 (Strasbourg-France) in 2009. In 2016, he completed PhD studies at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), focusing on evaluation of safety and efficacy of Tanzanian medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria.

Research Interest

My research interest is on drug discovery from medicinal plants traditionally used for prevention and treatment of diseases in Tanzania. My research area is on evaluation of biological activities of crude extracts, fractions and isolated compounds from medicinal plants focusing on antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, anti-epilepsy, and anti-diabetes activities.

Our Researches and Publications


  • Anti-TB Natural Products
  • Anti-ulcers
  • Anti-diabetes
  • Malaria
  • Health System
  • Identification of HIV-1 lead compounds from medicinal plants
  • Identification of antibacterial and antifungal agents from medicinal plants


Short Course on Traditional Medicine Development Level

Short Course on Traditional Medicine Development Level II

Short Course on Traditional Medicine Development Level III


Annual Report

News Bulletin


Policies Doc


Our Products



Ulcers Med

List of Our Publications
Name of PublicationAuthor/sOCID-Link
Antimicrobial Activity and Brineshrimp Toxicity of Extracts of Terminalia brownii Roots and Stem. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2007, 7:9Zakaria H. Mbwambo, Mainen J. Moshi, Pax J Masimba, Modest C. Kapingu, Ramadhani S.O. Nondo.
Antimicrobial and brine shrimp toxicity of some plants used in traditional medicine in Bukoba District, north-western Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2009, 11(1): 23-28M.J. Moshi, E. Innocent, P.J. Masimba, D.F. Otieno, A. Weisheit, P. Mbabazi, M. Lynes, K. Meachem, A. Hamilton and I. Urassa.
Prevalence of Drug Resistance Mutations and HIV Type 1 Subtypes in an HIV Type 1-Infected Cohort in Rural Tanzania. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 2013, 29 (9): 1229-1236Pax Masimba, Elimsaada Kituma, Thomas Klimkait, Edit Horvath, Marcel Stoeckle, Christoph Hatz, Erick Mossdorf, Emmanuel Mwaigomole, Salim Khamis, Boniphace Jullu, Salim Abdulla, Marcel Tanner, and Ingrid Felger.
Biological Potential of Extracts and compounds from Mammea usambarensis Verdc Fruit. J Adv Sci Res, 2014, 5(3): 07-12Pax J. Masimba, Joseph J. Magadula, Zaituni Msengwa, Rose B. Tarimo, Zakariah H. Mbwambo, Matthias Heydenreich, Dimitri Breard, Pascal Richomme , Eltayeb Fadul Fadul Alla.
Oral Acute Toxicity Study of Annona squamosa l. Leaves Extract and Fractions in Albino Mice. Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 2016, 7 (1)-38-42Pax J. Masimba, Ester Innocent and Baraka Samwel.
Suitability of Constructed Wetland Treated Domestic Wastewater as Source of Irrigation Water and Nutrients on Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Performance in Morogoro, Tanzania. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch-IJAEB, 3(05), 33-44.A.M.S Nyomora.1 J.H.Y Katima.2 and Ernest B.3 (2018):
The Effect of Field Applied Biochar as a Climate Change Mitigation Strategy to Enrich Soil and Improve Productivity of Okra. Book of Abstracts, University of Dar es Salaam.Nyomora A.M.S.1 and Ernest B.2 (2019).
Experience on healthcare utilization in seven administrative Regions of Tanzania, Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 8:5Kayombo, EJ, FC Uiso and Mahunnah RLA (2012)
Edmund J. Kayombo, Rogasian L. A. Mahunnah and Febronia FC Uiso (2013) Prospects and challenges of Medicinal plants conservation and traditional medicine in Tanzania, Anthropology Vol 1 issue 3 , 1000108Edmund J. Kayombo, Rogasian L. A. Mahunnah and Febronia FC Uiso (2013)
Birth preparedness and complication Readness a Qualitive study Among Community in Rural Tanzania, Global health Action, 8August F, Andrea B.Pembe, Edmund Kayombo, Columba Mbekenga, Pia Axemo and Elizabeth darj (2015)
Commonly used Plants for Various Health Conditions in Mlangali Ward, Ludewa District Tanzania. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 9(1): 1-16.Edmund J. Kayombo (2016)
Attitude and use of Female Condoms Among Female Undergraduates Students in University of Dar-es-Salaam, Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 9(2): 1-10Regina Mutayangulwa and Edmund J. Kayombo (2016) Knowledge ,
Nakuzelwa DE and Kayombo EJ (2016) Knowledge and Utilization of PMTCT among HIV Positive Women Attending Postnatal Clinic at Bariadi District Hospital, Tanzania; Journal of Scientific Research & Reports 12(6): 1-10, 2016; Article no.JSRR.27090Nakuzelwa DE and Kayombo EJ (2016)
Disclosure of HIV Status Among People living with HIV and AIDS : The Dar-Es-Salaam City, Tanzania Experiences Ew J Epidemiol & Clin Med 2017, 3(1): 46 – 54Kayombo, EJ (2017)
Evaluation of Root Extract of Cyphostemma Adenocaule (Vitaceae) for Antioxidant Activity, Brine Shrimp Toxicity, and Antiproliferative Activity against Hela Cervical Cancer Cells. International Journal of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products. 7(1), 19-27Daniel Zacharia Matata D. Z., Machumi F., Ngassapa O. D., Moshi M. J., Mafumiko F. M. S., Oosthuizen K., Swanepoel B., Venables L., Koekemoer T. C., Kazyoba P. E., van de Venter M. (2021).
Two mosquito larvicidal arabinofuranosidetridecanol from Commiphora merkeri exudate. Natural Product Research, 35(11)Samwel B, Innocent E, Machumi F, Kisinza W.N, Heydenreich M. (2021).
Seasonal Impacts on Antifungal Activity and Chemical Composition of Extracts from Medicinal Plants Turraea holstii and Clausena anisata. Journal of Médicinal Plants Research, 15(4): 133-139Machumi F, Innocent E, Yanda P. (2021).
Chemical composition of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus maculata grown in Tanzania. Scientific African. 12 (2021) e00758Almas I., Innocent E., Machumi F., Kisinza W. (2021).
In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the root extract of Aspilia mossambicensis (Oliv) Wild (Asteraceae). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 14(11): 613-624Matata D. Z., Ngassapa O. D., Moshi M. J., Machumi F., Oosthuizen K., Swanepoel B., Venables L., Koekemoer T., Heydenreich M., Kazyoba P. E., van de Venter M. (2020).
Assessment of heavy metals in Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces and Moringa oleifera leaves collected from different areas in Tanzania. Journal of Ecobiotechnology, 12: 17-21Clovis M., Machumi F, Innocent E. (2020).
Assessment of Quality of Artemisia afra Powder Used as Antimalarial in Tanzania. Science Journal of Chemistry, 8(5): 119-123Kheir K. R., Machumi F., Kalala W., Masimba P., Kombo U. M., Ally M. S. (2020).
Isolation of a new cytotoxic compound, 3-((Z)-heptadec-14-enyl) benzene -1-ol from Rhus natalensis root extract. Phytochemistry Letters 36, (120–126)Matata D. Z., Moshi M. J., Machumi F., Ngassapa O. D., Swanepoel B., Oosthuizen K., Venables L., Koekemoer T., Heydenreich M., Kazyob P. E., Van de Venter M. (2020).
Comparative evaluation of hypoglycemic activity and phytochemical contents of three Tanzanian medicinal plants. International Journal of Herbal Medicine; 8: 58-62Credo D., Machumi F., Masimba, P. J., Mwakigonja A. R. (2020).
In vitro study of antifungal compounds from Parinari curatellifolia (Chrysobalanaceae) and Terminalia sericea (Combretaceae). Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 2021;15(1): 367-378. DOI:, MNV., Mabiki, F., Innocent, E. Andersson, PG. (2021).
Antifungal activity of single and combined extracts of medicinal plants from Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2019; 8(1): 181-187. DOI:, MNV., Mabiki, F., Innocent, E. Andersson, PG. (2019).
Ethnobotanical survey and toxicity evaluation of medicinal plants used for fungal remedy in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology. 6(1): 84-96., MNV., Innocent, E., Mabiki, F. Andersson, PG. (2017).
One-Pot Preparation of Peptide-Doped Metal–Amino Acid Framework for General Encapsulation and Targeted Delivery. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 13(9), 11195-11204.Mugaka, Benson Peter, Zhang, S., Li, R. Q., Ma, Y., Wang, B., Hong, J., & Xia, X. H. (2021).
Comparison of N- Docosanol and B-Sitosterol Content in the leaf and Stem Bark of Prunus africana Collected from different Geographical Zones in Tanzania. International Journal of Pure Applied Bioscience. 1 (6): 132-138.Benson Peter Mugaka, J.J., Otieno, Mahunnah, R.L., P. E. Kazyoba, Elianghiringa K., 2013.
Surface Modification of Gold Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery. In: Pathak Y. (eds) Surface Modification of Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery. Springer, Cham. Benson Peter., Hu Y., Ma Y., Ding Y. (2019)
Mitochondria: promising organelle targets for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Biomaterial. Sci., 2018, 6, 2786-2797.Xiao-Shuang Hou, Huai-Song Wang, Benson Peter Mugaka, Gong-Jun Yang and Ya Ding
Short Review on Genotoxic Impurities in Sartans.World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research.10 (11)147-158.Amari Mohamed Khamis, Charos Tuychi qizi Omonova, Benson Peter Mugaka.(2021)
Clinical Presentations and Predictors of Severe Sickle Cell Disease among Patients Who Attended Muhimbili National Hospital Dar-Es Salaam, Tanzania: A Retrospective Study. Int J Blood Res Disord, 9, 076.Shija, E. A., Kabakama, C., Mugaka, B. P., Yu-jiao, X., & Shi, Y. (2022).
Two arabinofuranosidetridecanol from Commiphora merkeri exudate and their mosquito larvicidal and cytotoxic activities. Natural Products Research. 27:1-9. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2021.1931866.Baraka Samwel, Ester Innocent, Francis Machumi, William N Kisinza and Matthias Heydenreich (2021).
Mosquito larvicidal activity of polar extracts from three Kotschya species against Anopheles gambiae. International Journal of Mosquito Research, 2020, 7(3):29-33Innocent Daniel, Ester Innocent, Joseph sempombe, Veronica Mugoyela and Baraka Samwel (2020).
Isolation and characterization of mosquito larvicidal compounds from leaves of Kotschya uguenensis (Taub) F. Whote. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 7(6): 01-04Baraka Samwel, Ester Innocent, Francis Machumi, William N Kisinza and Matthias Heydenreich (2019).
Mosquito larvicidal and brine shrimp activities of Commiphora merkeri Engl. (Burseraceae) exudate. International Journal of Mosquito Research, 6(2): 01-04Baraka Samwel, Ester Innocent, Francis Machumi and William N Kisinza (2019).
Oral acute toxicity study of Annona squamosa L. leaves extract and fractions in albino mice. Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 7(1): 38-42Masimba P. J., Innocent, E. and Samwel, B. (2016).
Larvicidal Activity of Metarhizium anisopliae and Annona squamosa leaf Extract against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae larvae. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, 3(4): 169-176Samwel, B., Innocent, E. and Masimba, P. J. (2015).